Sappho


I lived from -615–550. I was from Greece.
Only a handful of details are known about the life of Sappho. She was born around 615 B.C. to an aristocratic family on the Greek island of Lesbos. Evidence suggests that she had several brothers, married a wealthy man named Cercylas, and had a daughter named Cleis. She spent most of her adult life in the city of Mytilene on Lesbos where she ran an academy for unmarried young women. Sappho’s school devoted itself to the cult of Aphrodite and Eros, and Sappho earned great prominence as a dedicated teacher and poet. A legend from Ovid suggests that she threw herself from a cliff when her heart was broken by Phaon, a young sailor, and died at an early age. Other historians post that she died of old age around 550 B.C.

Sappho

The history of her poems is as speculative as that of her biography. She was known in antiquity as a great poet: Plato called her „the tenth Muse“ and her likeness appeared on coins.

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The history of her poems is as speculative as that of her biography. She was known in antiquity as a great poet: Plato called her „the tenth Muse“ and her likeness appeared on coins. It is unclear whether she invented or simply refined the meter of her day, but today it is known as „Sapphic“ meter. Her poems were first collected into nine volumes around the third century B.C., but her work was lost almost entirely for many years. Merely one twenty-eight-line poem of hers has survived intact, and she was known principally through quotations found in the works of other authors until the nineteenth century. In 1898 scholars unearthed papyri that contained fragments of her poems. In 1914 in Egypt, archeologists discovered papier-mâché coffins made from scraps of paper that contained more verse fragments attributed to Sappho.

Three centuries after her death the writers of the New Comedy parodied Sappho as both overly promiscuous and lesbian. This characterization held fast, so much so that the very term „lesbian“ is derived from the name of her home island. Her reputation for licentiousness would cause Pope Gregory to burn her work in 1073. Because social norms in ancient Greece differed from those of today and because so little is actually known of her life, it is difficult to unequivocally answer such claims. Her poems about Eros, however, speak with equal force to men as well as to women.

Sappho is not only one of the few women poets we know of from antiquity, but also is one of the greatest lyric poets from any age. Most of her poems were meant to be sung by one person to the accompaniment of the lyre (hence the name, „lyric“ poetry). Rather than addressing the gods or recounting epic narratives such as those of Homer, Sappho’s verses speak from one individual to another. They speak simply and directly to the „bittersweet“ difficulties of love. Many critics and readers alike have responded to the personal tone and urgency of her verses, and an abundance of translations of her fragments are available today.

No word

I have had not one word from her
Frankly I wish I were dead.
When she left, she wept

a great deal; she said to
me, „This parting must be
endured, Sappho. I go unwillingly.“

I said, „Go, and be happy
but remember (you know
well) whom you leave shackled by love

„If you forget me, think
of our gifts to Aphrodite
and all the loveliness that we shared

„all the violet tiaras,
braided rosebuds, dill and
crocus twined around your young neck

„myrrh poured on your head
and on soft mats girls with
all that they most wished for beside them

„while no voices chanted
choruses without ours,
no woodlot bloomed in spring without song…“


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